Albumin Use in Critical Illness

A 70-year-old woman was admitted to the surgical ward with abdominal pain. CT scans showed some dilated loops of small bowel. She remained on the surgical ward for 5 days with minimal resolution of her symptoms. She was taken to theatre for exploratory laparotomy where she was diagnosed with faecal peritonitis from a perforated diverticulum. She had a washout and a Hartmanns procedure was performed.
She became unstable during her laparotomy requiring vasopressors and was taken to the intensive care unit postoperatively.  She was left with a laparostomy with a VAC dressing applied. She was treated with lung protective ventilation and remained cardiovascularly unstable. Two days later she was taken back to theatre for a further washout and closure of her abdomen. She developed an ileus and was then started on total parenteral nutrition. An oesophageal doppler monitor was placed to help guide her fluid status. She was extubated on day 4 post op but her filling status remained a problem to gauge. Her fluid balance became very positive and she became very oedematous. Her albumin level dropped significantly. It was then decided to give her daily intravenous albumin.
What evidence is there for the use of albumin in critically ill patients?

Read More »

Predicting Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation

A 60 year old man was electively admitted to the intensive care unit following a combined kidney pancreas transplant. Diabetes mellitus was the cause for his end stage renal failure. He was admitted for overnight HDU care, and was discharged the following day. He had delayed graft function thought to be related to a prolonged cold ischaemic time of the kidney. He would need dialysis until the function of the transplanted kidney improved. Four days later whilst on the ward he became hypotensive, became unconscious and suffered a cardiac arrest. He was successfully resuscitated and was readmitted to ICU.

In the ICU he required a blood transfusion as his haemoglobin level had dropped. He was taken to theatre for a re-laparotomy and a graft pancreatectomy was performed and all bleeding was stopped.

He continued to suffer from delayed kidney graft function and needed intermittent dialysis. After two days he was on minimal respiratory support and on sedation hold was deemed ready for extubation. He was extubated successfully and remained so for the next 12 hours. He then had an episode of bradycardia and had a markedly reduced cardiac output. He was re-intubated and stabilised. A temporary pacing wire was inserted to control potential episodes of bradycardia.

His condition remained stable over the next day and was again extubated. His oxygenation needs increased over the next 12 hours and was placed on non- invasive ventilation. This stabilised him over the next 12 hours but he suffered from retained secretions and was re-intubated. He then suffered with an ileus and had abdominal distension which complicated his respiratory function. He had a tracheostomy placed and remained on mechanical ventilation for 2 weeks. He was difficult to wean as he suffered set backs related to acute sputum retention and a ventilator associated pneumonia.

This patient had been extubated twice with some degree of morbidity associated with it as he had to be reintubated. It would also be reasonable to assume that this increased his length of stay on the ICU slowed down his ICU discharge. Deciding when to extubate a patient seems to be still a difficult decision to make in some cases and the experience of senior clinicians remains an important role.

For those who have not accumulated this level of clinical experience are there tools available to help them in deciding when and who could be weaned and extubated from mechanical ventilation?Read More »

Acute Mitral Valve Failure

 

An elderly woman woke from sleep with acute breathlessness and wheeze. She had been treated for late-onset asthma by her GP. She had no other previous medical history and was exceptionally active. In the emergency department she received standard treatment for acute severe asthma . A systolic murmur was noted and an echocardiogram requested. After 24 hours of relative stability she experienced a sudden deterioration in her breathing and despite increased therapy for her asthma she had a respiratory arrest.

Following resuscitation and emergency tracheal intubation she was transferred to the ICU. On examination she was peripherally cool. Chest auscultation revealed extensive wheeze and crackles. Investigations revealed a raised troponin I (0.92 ug/L) and raised BNP (530 pmol/L). Her CXR revealed pulmonary oedema and her ECG showed sinus rhythm without overt evidence of ischaemia.

Initial problems included poor oxygenation, oliguria and a low cardiac output state (LiDCO revealed cardiac index of 2.1 l/min/m2). She received norepinephrine (up to 0.6 mcg/kg/min) and dobutamine (up to 40 mcg/kg/min). Levosimendan was introduced to augment her cardiac function as her CI had not achieved to 2.5l/min/m2. Norepinephrine was increased to maintain a MAP over 65mmHg. After levosimendan her urine output, acid-base status and CI were not substantially improved. The dobutamine had been stopped and she remained on norepinephrine.

An echocardiogram revealed hyperdynamic LV and RV and mitral regurgitation, which was initially assessed as being moderate in severity. Cardiac surgical opinion was that the risk of mitral valve surgery was unacceptably high.

Over the following few days she had problems with recurrent compromising atrial fibrillation and was treated with varying degrees of success with a variety of measures including DC cardioversion, amiodarone, metoprolol, digoxin and verapamil. Diuresis was obtained with a frusemide infusion and ramipril was introduced. Her CXR appearances improved and ventilation became easier.

On the 3rd day a trans-oesphageal echocardiogram confirmed severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with prolapse of the posterior mitral valve (MV) leaflet due to a ruptured chordae tendinae. There was resultant left atrial enlargement and pulmonary hypertension with an estimated PA systolic pressure of 60-70mmHg. Within a week she was weaned from ventilatory support and recovered sufficiently to mobilise independently prior to discharge home.Read More »

Arthrogryposis & Paediatric Difficult Airway

EMERGENCY MANAGMENT OF A DIFFICULT AIRWAY IN AN INFANT WITH ARTHROGRYPOSIS MULTIPLEX CONGENITA

A 4 month old infant with arthropgryposis multiplex congenital was admitted to the paediatric assessment unit. The infant had been acutely unwell over the preceding 12 hours with respiratory compromise and a productive cough with green sputum. He had signs of respiratory distress with a RR of 40, pulse oximetry showed SpO2 of 85% on air and only 90% with a facemask, reservoir bag and high flow oxygen. It was felt that the infant would need to be intubated and ventilated. Two months before the infant had had a respiratory arrest on the neonatal ward and was unable to be intubated. That situation was resolved by mask ventilation and rescue with an LMA. There were obvious concerns that direct laryngoscopy would be unsuccessful and may precipitate a terminal decline in the patient’s condition.

The infant’s breathing was supported by bag/mask ventilation whilst he was transferred to an ENT theatre. Further anaesthetic support and an ENT surgeon were sought. I.v. access was established through a scalp vein. Ventilation was switched to an Ayres T piece with Jackson-Rees modification. Induction of anaesthesia was initiated with sevoflurane and oxygen. Direct laryngoscopy showed a Lehane and Cormack grade 4 view.

A rigid bronchoscope with video camera monitor was used by the ENT surgeon to obtain a view of the glottis. An epidural catheter was placed down the side port of the bronchoscope and was directed through the vocal cords. The bronchoscope was removed and a fine bore suction catheter was railroaded over the epidural catheter to give more stiffness. The positions of the end of the catheters were checked with the bronchoscope. A size 3.0cm uncuffed endotracheal tube was then railroaded over the catheters into trachea. Position and length were confirmed with the bronchoscope and ventilation was continued. The arrangement is shown in Figure 1.

The child was then transferred to the adult ICU where a retrieval team arrived to transfer the patient to a PICU.

What is arthrogryposis? Describe some methods for achieving control of the difficult paediatric airway.Read More »

Heparin Induced Thrombocytopaenia

 

A 75 year old was admitted to the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit following aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis. He had no other significant past medical history. He remained intubated and ventilated overnight until cardiovascularly stable, and was extubated the following morning. He suffered bleeding into the pericardial drains, and went back to theatre on day 3. He remained intubated on his return from theatre. On day 7 it was noticed that he had developed thrombocytopenia, with a platelet count of 34, reducing from 103 the previous day. A heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) screen was sent, and he was changed to alternative anticoagulation.

The HIT screen was positive. His platelet count fell further and he continued to bleed slowly from any puncture sites and from around his mouth and gums. He remained intubated and ventilated and developed a requirement for inotropic support. Transfusions of platelets were required for any intervention. He was anticoagulated with lepirudin to prevent thrombosis. His platelet count continued to remain in single figures over the next 10 days despite treatment with steroids. Unfortunately he deteriorated, suffering an arterial thrombosis in his arm, renal failure and developed a necrotic skin rash all over his body, likely to be related to the HIT. Following discussions with his family, who felt he was suffering and would not want a poor quality of life, treatment was withdrawn on day 26 of his intensive care stay and she died.

What are the clinical implications of heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia?Read More »

Transplantation After Brainstem Death

A 38-year-old previously fit man suffered a grade five subarachnoid haemorrhage. Attempts at coiling failed and he suffered a catastrophic rebleed on-table whereupon his pupils became fixed and dilated. After a suitable sedation washout period he underwent testing which confirmed brainstem death at which point he was referred to the specialist nurse for organ donation. Following counselling of the family and appropriate assessment, donation of his kidneys, liver and heart was agreed.

Upon confirmation of brainstem death, mechanical ventilation was continued to ensure PaO2 greater than 10 kPa and limit peak inflation pressure to less than 30 cmH20. Vasoactive support was switched from noradrenaline to vasopressin 0.02 iu/kg/min. Methylprednisolone and intravenous triiodothyronine were administered whilst awaiting harvest. Blood antibody testing for HIV1+2, Hepatitis B and C, HTLV-1 and CMV IgG were all negative. A transthoracic echocardiogram confirmed good biventricular function; following discussion with the transplant retrieval team a pulmonary artery catheter was floated. Clinical measurements of cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation were satisfactory. Adequate hydration was maintained with crystalloid by infusion and glucose control optimised in the range 8-10 mmol/L with insulin. The dedicated retrieval team performed the organ retrieval eighteen hours after confirmation of brainstem death.

How can we optimise organ function for organ donation?Read More »

Management of Inhalational Injury

A 30-year-old man with no significant past medical history was admitted to ED from a house fire started by a piece of faulty electrical equipment. There were superficial skin burns only but some evidence of a possible inhalation injury with singed nasal hairs and a hoarse voice. Coughing resulted in expectoration of carbonaceous sputum with some haemoptysis. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a PaO2 of 10.4 kPa on 40% oxygen a carboxyhaemoglobin level of 18%.

Semi-elective endotracheal intubation was performed using an uncut orotracheal tube. Ventilatory parameters were adjusted to give a tidal volume of 6-8 ml/kg and plateau pressure of less than 30 cmH20. Recruitment manouveres were performed to give an optimum compliance in the region of 40-50 ml/cmH20 with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 H20. The inspired fraction of oxygen was kept high (i.e. greater than 60%) until there was a fall of the carboxyhaemoglobin level to less than 5% at which point downwards titration was performed as guided by a target SpO2 of 94%.

Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed approximately six hours after admission to intensive care which demonstrated carbonaceous colonisation of the lower respiratory tract and areas of erythematous and denuded epithelium. Within 12 hours of intubation significant oedema of the face and upper airway had developed. A restrictive fluid regimen was instituted and there was gradual resolution of this swelling over the next 3 days. At this time, gas exchange was satisfactory and the patient was successfully extubated before being discharged to the high-dependency unit.

How is inhalational injury managed on the ICU?Read More »

Pneumococcal Sepsis

An elderly man with a background of ischaemic heart disease, severe aortic stenosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented following recent travel from Hong Kong with shortness of breath and hypoxia. A chest X-ray confirmed left lower lobe consolidation (CRP 502, WCC 22) and he was commenced on broad spectrum antibiotics (Tazocin and Clarithromycin). Over the following 12 hours he deteriorated on the ward, with worsening hypoxia, hypotension and anuria.

He required emergency admission to intensive care for intubation and ventilation, and required inotropic support. He developed a severe metabolic acidosis and rising lactate, for which  haemofiltration was commenced. Vasopressin was added, followed by dobutamine, and hydrocortisone started for inotrope resistant hypotension. He remained ventilated on 100% oxygen, with high pressure support. He had a positive pneumococcal antigen, and high dose benzylpenicillin was added to his antibiotic regime, along with Oseltamivir (Tamiflu). Despite 12 hours of intensive therapy his acidosis worsened and he failed to respond to increasing doses of inotropic support, dying 30 hours after presentation to hospital.

What are the clinical features of pneumococcal sepsis?Read More »

Use of Bicarbonate in Lactic Acidosis

Five days post emergency colorectal surgery, an elderly woman, following a brief period of chest pain a few hours earlier, developed progressive hypotension and tachycardia on the ward. She had a background of hypertension, type 2 diabetes and a chronic left foot ulcer. On examination she was found to be clammy, mottled and peripherally vasoconstricted with a GCS of 15/15. Her abdomen was soft and non-tender. Her initial ECG had showed no ischaemic changes and subsequent ECGs showed only a sinus tachycardia.

Initial blood gas analysis showed a metabolic acidosis (pH 7.21 Lactate 2.8mmol/l, HCO3 11.1mmol/l with a pCO2 of 2.7kPa).  A starting differential diagnosis of a cardiac event, a pulmonary embolism, critical ischaemia or sepsis related to a hip or foot ulcer were made. Urgent orthopaedic and vascular review were obtained, and it was deemed that neither the hip, ulcer or vascular insufficiency were a likely source for the deterioration. Initially it was planned to transfer her for a CTPA, however she became progressively unstable, was no longer fluid responsive, and was intubated on the ward and transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for stabilisation.

On arrival on ICU she continued to deteriorate, and in addition to fluid resuscitation required a high dose noradrenaline infusion to maintain her blood pressure. Broad spectrum antibiotics were started, a bedside echocardiogram and blood tests performed and hydrocortisone started. Her metabolic acidosis continued to deteriorate, subsequent arterial blood gas showed a pH 6.91, Lactate of 13.7mmol/l, HCO3 7.7mmol/l, base excess -25mmol/l with a pCO2 of 5.4kPa. It was decided to correct this acidosis with a bicarbonate infusion and initially 200ml of 8.4% was given over an hour, based on correcting half the calculated bicarbonate deficit (bicarbonate deficit (mmol) = base deficit 0.3xbodyweight(kg)1).  The blood gas following this infusion showed improvement in the metabolic acidosis despite the increasing Lactate (pH 7.07, Lac 14.0mmol/l, HCO3 10mmol/l, BE -18.6mmol/l with a pCO2 of 4.85kPa). She continued to deteriorate and the results from her blood tests, troponin and bedside echo suggested a primary myocardial infarction to cause this decline. She was too unstable for primary coronary intervention and her condition continued to deteriorate. She died 6 hours post admission.

Read More »

High Dose Insulin Infusion for Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose

A 24-year-old was admitted following an intentional overdose of 10mg amlodipine tablets following an argument with his family. Approximately 10 tablets were ingested. On self-presentation two hours after the event, he was clinically stable with no haemodynamic compromise. There was no airway or respiratory compromise and a 12 lead electrocardiogram demonstrated sinus rhythm at 98 beats per minute. Both an arterial blood gas and electrolyte analysis were normal. Ionised calcium was 1.14 mol/L.

Over the following two hours he developed hypotension down to a nadir of 58/32 mmHg without change in heart rate or rhythm or the development of metabolic abnormalities. This was initially treated with intravenous fluids without significant response. A bolus of calcium chloride was administered without success; at this time he was referred to the intensive care team for assessment. Careful clinical examination revealed no other abnormality except hypotension. Neurological function remained intact and there appeared to be a vasodilated state with warm peripheries and relative tachycardia at 110 beats per minute in sinus rhythm.

The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where an infusion of noradrenaline was commenced, rapidly escalating to a rate of 0.92 mcg/kg/min with little improvement in mean arterial pressure beyond 30-40 mmHg and relative oliguria. After consultation with the National Poisons Service, a high dose infusion of actrapid was commenced at rate of 0.5 units/kg/hour, with subsequent improvement of his haemodynamic parameters and a reduction in his noradrenaline requirement. Over the following 4 hours, both this infusion and the noradrenaline infusion were subsequently weaned off. The patient was discharged to the ward after eight hours and after assessment by the psychiatric team, from hospital the following day.

What are the clinical features of calcium channel blocker overdose and what is the role of high dose insulin infusion?Read More »