A middle aged man presented with urosepsis after several days antibiotic therapy in the community. He was in septic shock, with tachypnoea, tachycardia and hypotension. He had raised inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury. His initial lactate level was 14mmol/L with a significant metabolic acidosis (base deficit 21). He was commenced on iv antibiotics, noradrenaline and renal replacement therapy. Lactate levels cleared to less than 2mmol/L over the next 24hrs. He weaned off noradrenaline in 72 hours and CVVHDF over the next 5 days.
How is lactate produced and what is its significance in predicting the severity of critical illness?
A 40 year old male was brought into ED following a high speed road traffic accident. The patient was ejected from the vehicle. The patient was managed according to ATLS guidelines. He suffered extensive injuries including facial fractures, traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage and multiple intra-cerebral haemorrhages, a flail chest and thoracic and cervical spine injuries. Once stabilised, the patient was transferred to the neurosurgical intensive care unit where an intra-cranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted to measure intracranial pressures. His ICP was persistently raised despite optimising respiratory parameters, deep sedation, muscle relaxation and then mannitol. A decision was made to commence an infusion of hypertonic saline 2.7% according to the local protocol. The ICP improved rapidly and stabilised and removed the need to proceed with surgical decompressive craniotomy.
What is the evidence for the use of hypertonic saline in the treatment of acutely raised intracranial pressure?Read More »
A young adult female with known diagnosis of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus was admitted with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. She had only recently been discharged from hospital after an admission with diabetic ketoacidosis. On arrival she had a GCS 3 with minimal respiratory effort. She was in profound DKA. Her temperature was 34.7°C on admission to ICU and she had targeted temperature management aiming for 36°C which was achieved within 2 hours. Her pH had normalised to 7.35 within 8 hours. 48 hours later one pupil became fixed and dilated. CT brain was consistent with global hypoxic ischaemic injury. EEG and SSEP on day 3 revealed severe lack of normal cortical activity. After discussion with family, treatment was withdrawn on day 4.
How do we undertake neuroprognostication after cardiac arrest in the post-TTM era?
A 55-year-old previously healthy lady was admitted with pancreatitis secondary to gallstones. Her admission modified Glasgow Score was 4, and CT scan showed approximately 70% necrosis of the pancreas encompassing the neck, body and tail with sparing of the head. She rapidly developed ARDS, AKI and vasoplegia, and subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome requiring decompressive laparotomy. Her later complications included intraabdominal collections requiring percutaneous drainage, upper GI bleeding, and staged closure of her laparostomy. She was initially commenced on enteral NG feeding but developed high NG aspirates despite pro-kinetics. Parenteral nutrition (PN) was commenced in combination with a ‘trophic’ enteral feed. Four weeks into her admission her triglyceride level was found to be elevated, necessitating lipid free PN and cessation of propofol. This led to a drop in her triglyceride level.
How should we manage the provision of nutrition in acute pancreatitis?
A previously healthy 25 year old female was admitted with low GCS and a fever. She had a 24 history of viral symptoms including sore throat and a headache. On admission she had a GCS of 3, temperature of 38.9°C and raised inflammatory markers. She was intubated but did not require vasopressor support. A CT brain showed diffuse cerebral swelling, effacement of the sulci, sylvian fissures, basal cisterns and 3rd/4th ventricles, and early cerebellar tonsillar herniation. Lumbar puncture was not performed due to CT appearances. She was commenced on intravenous (IV) ceftriaxone 2g twice daily, IV acyclovir 800mg three times daily, and IV dexamethasone 10mg four times daily. Unfortunately, her pupils remained fixed and dilated on sedation hold 36 hours later, and she was making no respiratory efforts. She subsequently became a DBD organ donor.
What is the evidence for dexamethasone in bacterial meningitis?
A week after an elective colectomy, a 70yr old man developed septic shock and multiorgan failure secondary to anastomotic breakdown. He was managed according to surviving sepsis guidelines with source control, early antibiotics, fluids and noradrenaline. The patient remained hypotensive and refractory to noradrenaline therapy, and had vasopressin and low dose hydrocortisone infusion commenced.
What is the evidence for the use of corticosteroids in septic shock?Read More »
A patient with polytrauma develops compartment syndrome with an ischaemic leg 24hrs into his admission. He undergoes revascularisation and fasciotomies, but develops rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury with a CK that peaks at over 100,000.
Is there a role for mannitol and bicarbonate in the management of his rhabdomyolysis and AKI?Read More »
A cardiovascularly fit 65 year old man was admitted with septic shock secondary to community acquired pneumonia, which progressed to multi-organ failure. During his recovery it was noted that he had generalised weakness with no focal neurology. He underwent respiratory weaning, and rehabilitation therapy over the next 4 weeks but had persistent weakness at his ICU discharge.
How can ICU-acquired weakness be diagnosed and managed?Read More »
A 55 yr old man developed severe necrotizing pancreatitis with multiorgan failure. One week into his illness he had developed multiple intra-abdominal collections and had high intra-abdominal pressures. Initial conservative management failed, percutaneous drainage of his collections failed to reduce the abdominal pressures, and he underwent decompressive laparotomy.
What is the evidence behind the current guidelines for the measurement of intra-abdominal hypertension and the use of decompressive laparotomy in the management of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome?Read More »
A 67 year old with signficant cardiovascular comorbidities presented with a fractured neck of femur after a fall. She had a hemiarthroplasty performed under GA with fascia iliaca blocks, and went to HDU postoperatively. She became acutely confused during the first postoperative night with hallucinations and paranoia. She was CAM-ICU positive and was given haloperidol to control her agitation.
What is the optimum management of delirium on the ICU?Read More »